4o4 HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP. Mahmud Shah now occupied the throne of Kabul, Herat was held by his brother Firuz-u-Din, and Kandahar by his heir-apparent, Kamran Mirza. In 1803, owing to Fath Khan's protection of the Shias of Kabul from massacre, a plot was formed in favour of the Amir's brother, the Shuja-ul-Mulk, who seized the throne and imprisoned, but did not blind, Fath Khan. The latter submitted to the usurper, and for a few years Shah Shuja (as he is generally termed) ruled with the aid of the able Barakzai chief. He sent expeditions to Sind and Kashmir, but met with no success. Malcolm's Second Mission^ 1808.—The Home and Indian Governments were both alarmed by the rapidity with which French influence had become paramount at Teheran and the consequent increase in the French peril.1 Sir Harford Jones, who afterwards assumed the name of Brydges and who had served as Resident at Basra, was appointed Envoy Extraordinary from the Crown, and in 1807 was despatched from England to Persia by way of the Cape with a commission which, although placing him in subordination to Lord Minto, the Governor-General, gave him full powers to negotiate a treaty between the King and the Shah. His expenses were chargeable to the Government of India. Meanwhile Lord Minto, who was at first ignorant of this appointment, realizing the urgency of the case, appointed Malcolm, now a Brigadier- General, to undertake much the same task. The latter, escorted by a powerful squadron, reached the Persian Gulf in May, 1808, at a time when the influence of General Gardanne was entirely in the ascendant. He was drilling the Persian army and constructing fortifications, and it was hoped that, through French influence, Georgia would be restored to Persia. In these circumstances the British Envoy, whose tone was perhaps too peremptory, was not treated with the courtesy due to his position. He was instructed by the Ministers of Fath Ali Shah to make his 1 The further steps that were taken included the despatch, b this year, of Mount- Stuart Elphinstone to Peshawar, where he concluded a treaty with Shah Shuja, by the terms of which Great Britain was bound to aid the Afghan ruler with money in case of a joint invasion of his territory by Persia and France. Shah Shuja, on his side, agreed to resist the confederates and to exclude all Frenchmen from his dominions for ever. Metcalfe was despatched on a similar mission to Ranjit Singh.